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同位语和定于从句的区别,第十六讲 简单句、并列句和复合句

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在考研英语备考中,掌握一些语法知识点很关键。下面小编带你看:同位语和定于从句的区别。

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第十六讲 简单句、并列句和复合句

2018考研英语:同位语从句和定语从句如何区分?

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一。考纲要求

定语从句与同位语从句的区别是什么?

  同学们在考研[微博]语法学习中经常容易混淆同位语从句和定语从句,对两种从句的混淆有时会直接影响到文章的准确理解及翻译句子正确翻译方法的采用,以下对两种从句的区分方法进行专项总结,以便同学们轻松掌握。两种从句的区别主要在以下三方面:

考试大纲要求考生能正确判断句子的类型、分析句子结构、结合语境和句意选择适当的连接词语、判断主语和从句的正确语序、恰当选择主句和从句谓语动词的时态。

同位语从句和定语从句都放在被修饰词的后边,而且都是用于修饰和说明前面的先行词,无论从形式上和作用上来看,它们都非常相似,所以初学者有时会迷惑不解。实际上,二者是很容易区别开来的,*主要是抓住两点:

  1. 从词类上区别

二。命题导向

1、连接词的作用不同。
同位语从句的连接词that只起将同位语从句与先行词之间的连接作用,不在从句中担任任何句子成分。引导定语从句的连接词是关系词,它们除了连接从句的作用外,还在定语从句中充当一定的句子成分,如主语、宾语、定语、表语等。另外,同位语从句的连接词只有that一个,所以which
, who , whose , whom , when , where ,
why等连接词引导的从句统统不是同位语从句而是定语从句。

  同位语从句前面的名词只能是idea, fact, news, hope, belief,
suggestion, proposal, word, thought, doubt, truth, possibility, promise,
order等有一定内涵的名词,而定语从句的先行词可以是名词、代词,主句的一部分或是整个主句,如:

高考对简单句、并列句和复合句的考查主要包括:句子的结构、连词的选择、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习惯用语和特殊的句式应用。

2、从句的作用不同。
定语从句具有形容词或副词的特点,对先行词起修饰、限定作用,与先行词之间是所属关系。而同位语从句具有名词的特点,对中心词作进一步补充解释,是中心词的具体内容。所以,定语从句一般是不能省略的,否则意思就不完整;而同位语从句则可以省略,省略后整个句子还是完整的。

  The possibility that the majority of the labor force will work at
home is often
discussed。人们经常讨论大多数劳动力将会在家里工作的可能性。(同位语从句)

三。复习要点

从引导词及其在句子中的成分上区别

  Our team has won the game, which made us very happy.
我们的队赢了,这让我们很高兴。(定语从句)

1.简单句、并列句和复合句

有些引导词如how, whether,
what可以引导同位语从句,但不能引导定语从句,如:

  2. 从性质上区别

① 句子种类两种分类法

www.1331.com,That question whether we need it has not been
considered.我们是否需要它这个问题还没有考虑。

  定语从句是从句对其先行词的修饰或限制,属于形容词性从句的范畴;而同位语从句是从句对前面抽象名词的进一步的说明和解释,属于名词性从句的范畴,如:

按照句子的用途,英语的句子可分:陈述句(肯定、否定)、疑问句(一般、特殊、选择、反意)、祈使句、感叹句等四种。

引导词that引导定语从句时,在从句中一般做主语或宾语,并且作宾语时常常省略,that在同位语从句中仅起连接作用,不充当任何成分,并且不能省略,也不能用which来代替,如:

  The news that our team has won the game was true.
我们队赢了那场比赛的消息是真的。(同位语从句,补充说明news到底是一个什么消息。)

按照句子的结构可分:简单句并列句和复合句三种。

The order that we should send a few people to help the other groups was
received
yesterday.我们应派几个人去帮别的几个小组的命令昨天收到了。(同位语从句,是对order的具体解释,that虽不作成分,但不能省略。)

  The news that he told me yesterday was true.
昨天他告诉我的那个消息是真的。(定语从句,news在从句中作told的宾语。)

简单句只有一个主语或并列主语和一个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and,
but,
or,so等)或分号(;)把两个或两个以上的简单句连在一起构成。复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的句子。复合句包含:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等三种。

The order that we received yesterday was that we should send a few
people to help the other
groups.我们昨天收到的命令是我们应该派几个人去帮助别的几个小组。(定语从句,是名词order的修饰语,that在从句中作received的宾语,可以省略。)

  3. 从引导词及其在句子中的成分上区别

② 并列句的分类

引导定语从句的that是关系代词,除了起连接主句和从句的作用外,还代替先行词在从句中充当一个成分。而且这个that还常可以用which来代替。引导同位语从句的that是个连词,只起连接主句和从句的作用,在从句中不充当任何成分,也不能用which来代替。

  有些引导词如how, whether,
what可以引导同位语从句,但不能引导定语从句,如:

并列句指把两个同等重要的句子连接在一起,句子之间常用and, not only…but
also…, neither…nor…, then等并列连词连接。

2018考研英语:同位语从句和定语从句如何区分?相信你已经从以上的内容中找到了问题的答案。

  That question whether we need it has not been considered.
我们是否需要它这个问题还没有考虑。(同位语从句)

表示选择关系常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

  引导词that引导定语从句时,在从句中一般做主语或宾语(指物时还可以用which代替),并且作宾语时常常省略,that在同位语从句中仅起连接作用,不充当任何成分,并且不能省略,也不能用which来代替,如:

表示转折关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

  The order that we should send a few people to help the other groups
was received yesterday.
我们应派几个人去帮别的几个小组的命令昨天收到了。(同位语从句,是对order的具体解释,that虽不作成分,但不能省略。)

表示因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

  The order that we received yesterday was that we should send a few
people to help the other groups.
我们昨天收到的命令是我们应该派几个人去帮助别的几个小组。(定语从句,是名词order的修饰语,that在从句中作received的宾语,可以省略。)

2.状语从句:

  【真题例句】

(1)状语从句的分类

  The issue of whether life ever existed on the planet, and whether it
persists to this day, has been highlighted by mounting evidence that the
Red Planet once had abundant stable, liquid water and by the continuing
controversy over suggestions that bacterial fossils rode to Earth on a
meteorite from Mars。

状语从句通常修饰主句的动词或整个句子,由从属连词引导,从属连词在从句中不充当句子成分。根据状语从句所表达的不同意义和功能,可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、结果、让步、比较、方式等状语从句。

  【解析】

(2)连接状语从句的词语

  句子可拆分为:The issue of //whether life ever existed on the
planet, and whether it persists to this day, //has been highlighted //by
mounting evidence //that the Red Planet once had abundant stable, liquid
water and //by the continuing controversy over suggestions //that
bacterial fossils rode to Earth on a meteorite from Mars。

时间状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as,
hardly/ scarcely…when…, no sooner…than.。.一……就……,while, till,
until, since, once。名词词组the first time第一次,last
time最后一次,every/each time每次,the next time下次,the next
day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant
一……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

  主句为:The issue of whether life ever existed on the planet, and
whether it persists to this day, has been highlighted by… and
by…。主句主语的结构为: The issue of whether…and whether…。of
短语修饰the issue, of 短语较长一般译在后面;that the Red
Planet…是evidence的同位语从句,(即是evidence的具体内容)。that bacterial
fossils…是suggestions的同位语从句,说明suggestions的具体内容。)第一个同位语从句可以直接翻译在所修饰词后面。第二个同位语可以放在所修饰的名词前面,充当定语。

原因状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

  【参考译文】

地点状语从句:where,wherever(无论那里)。

  越来越多的证据表明,这个红色行星上曾经有稳定而丰富的液态水,而且人们对从火星落到地球上的细菌化石陨石的说法一直有争论,使火星上是否存在过生命和是否至今仍有生命的问题成为了引人注目的重点。

让步状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though,
although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however,
wherever, whenever等。

  文章来源:万海学文

条件状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(如果;只要),in case (万一);
on condition that(如果), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

目的状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

比较状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……)
引导。

方式状语从句:as(正如;按照),as if/as though (好像)引导。

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以至于)。

(3)从句中的语序

复合句中通常采用陈述语序。但是,在下面的几种情况下,状语从句多采用倒装语序:

①当连词as,
though连接让步状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词通常置于句首,构成部分倒装语序。例如:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as
John。

Try as she might, Carol couldn’t get the door open。

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

②在so/such…that.。.结果状语从句中,so+形容词/副词或such+名词置于句首时,主句采用部分倒装语序。例如:

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new
branches elsewhere.

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

③在hardly/scarcely…when…, no
sooner…than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no
sooner置于句首时,第一个分句采用部分倒装语序,即把第二个分句用陈述语序。例如:

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

同位语和定于从句的区别,第十六讲 简单句、并列句和复合句。④ however与形容词、副词一起引导让步状语从句,句子采用陈述语序。例如:

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my
attention on study this week。

⑤ 在the
+比较级the+比较级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子仍然采用陈述语序。例如:Education
is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you
are。

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态一般遵循以下的规律:

①表示“同时”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while
等连接的时间状语从句,主句和从句时态基本一致。例如:As time passed,
things seemed to get worse。


表示“将来”意义的条件、时间和让步状语从句中多用一般现在时,而主句用一般将来时,被称为“主将从现”。例如:Tom
won’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。


since引导的时间状语从句多用一般过去时,而含有since从句的主句通常用现在完成时。例如:I
haven’t met her since I left university。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no
sooner…than…中,第一个分句中过去完成时,第二个分句用一般过去时。例如:She
had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

⑤ 在as if/though
引导的状语从句中,如果表示一种与事实相反夸张,从句多用一般过去时或过去完成时。例如:She
stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

(5)状语从句的省略

当从句的主语与主句的主语相同时,被动结构的状语从句,可省略与主句相同的主语和助动词,保留连词+过去分词;主动结构的状语从句,可省略与主句相同的主语和助动词,保留连词+现在分词。例如:We
all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get
worse。

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

(6)状语从句被用于强调结构中

状语从句作为被强调部分用于强调结构时,一律用It is/was
…that…,不能用when代替that。句子用陈述语序。注意:当强调Not until
+时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再采用倒装语序。例如:It was not until
the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

  1. 名词性从句

(1)名词性从句分类:

按照在句中的功能,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句四种。

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不担任成分,有时可被省略;表示“是否”用whether,只有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if代替。Whether和if在从句中不担任成分。如果从句缺少主语、表语、宾语、或定语等句子成分,用连接代词what,
whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose,
which;如果从句缺少状语,用连接副词when, where, how, why。

由于连接代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因而从句中谓语不用疑问语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句充当句子成分,而连接词whether
和if(是否),在从句中不充当句子成分,只起连接作用。

(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

① 在以下三种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should+动词原形”,
should可省略。

(1)It is+形容词+that…句型。常见的形容词有important, necessary, natural,
funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人惊讶的)等。

(2) It is +名词+that…句型。常见的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion,
proposal(提议,建议), requirement, request, desire, order等。

(3) It is+动词的过去分词+ that…句型。常见的动词有advise, order, propose,
request, suggest, demand, require等。

②在insist(坚持), urge (催促), order(命令), command(命令),
suggest(建议),advise(建议),recommend(建议,推荐),
request(请求,要求),
demand(要求),require(要求,需要)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,
should可省略。

③ 在含有advice, order, demand, proposal(提议), requirement,
suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,should可省略。

④在一些表示惊讶、意志等感情色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”或“should
+have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。例如:

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

  1. 定语从句

(1)定语从句的分类

定语从句分为限制性定语从句非限制性定语从句两种。限制性定语从句对先行词起修饰和限制作用,而非限制性定语从句对先行词起补充和解释说明作用。通常限制性定语从句与先行词之间没有逗号,而非限制性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔开。

(2)定语从句的关系代词和关系副词

定语从句一般由关系代词和关系副词引导。关系代词有:who, whom, whose,
which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where,
why。关系代词和关系副词必须位于从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着连接先行词和从句的作用,同时在从句中又充当句子成分。

(3)关系代词和关系副词的用法:

①当先行词为人时用who
作主语,whom作宾语;②当先行词为物或整个句子时用which,可作主语或宾语;③先行词为人、物时用that
,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤
关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

(4)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别

①限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义不完整,甚至不合逻辑。例如:I
was the only person in our office who was
invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就不完整)


非限制性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不密切,去掉定从句,意思仍然完整。形式上用逗号隔开,不能that用引导。例如:His
movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his
wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的意思仍完整)

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的几个问题

①用that而不用 which的情况:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing,
much…;先行词有最高级修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very,
any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。例如:There is nothing that can
prevent him from doing it。

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

② 用which而不用
that的情况:引导非限制性定语从句;指代整个主句的意思;用于介词 的后面+
关系代词。例如:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be
poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world,
there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an
example。

③ 关系代词as的用法

a. 当现行词为 the same
+名词,such+名词时,要用关系代词as引导定语从句。例如:

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

b.
as可指代主句的内容,引导的非限制性定语从句既可放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后。常用于下列句型:as
is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all
know, as I expect 等。例如: He got the first place again in this
mid-term examination, as we expected。

c. as 引导非限制性定语从句时与which的区别

当主句和从句语义一致时,用as引导;反之,用which来引导非限制性定语从句;当非限制定语从句为否定意义时,常用which引导。例如:

He made a long speech, as we expected。

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

④关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数还是用复数应由先行词决定。例如:

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the
morning。

⑤ 引导定语从句的关系副词有时可以用“介词 + which”来代替。例如:

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was
founded。

⑥在”介词+关系代词”结构中,关系代词只能用which和whom,且不能省略;如果介词在句末,关系代词可用which,
that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可省略。例如:

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be
friendly。

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